Your wordpress database includes mainly text and settings. These include things like your posts, pages, users, widget information etc. Images, themes, scripts, plugins, etc. are stored in the File Structure.
1. Login to your cPanel
2. Access phpMyAdmin
3. Select your Wordpress Database (Which database is my wordpress?)
4. Click on Export in the Top right. Leave the settings usually, it should be quick and in the SQL format.
That's it, now you have a backup of your Wordpress Database.